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## FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINES Analysis

### Objective:

The scholars finishing this course area unit expected to know the properties of fluids, its kinematic and dynamic behavior through numerous laws of fluids like continuity, Euler’s, Bernoulli’s equations, energy and momentum equations. Further, the coed shall be able to perceive the idea of physical phenomenon, operating and performance characteristics of varied hydraulic machines like pumps and turbines.

### UNIT I

#### Objective: ‘

When learning this unit student can recognize the thought of fluid and its properties, manometry, fluid mechanics forces performing on completely different surfaces and conjointly drawback finding techniques. Fluid statics: Dimensions and units: physical properties of fluids- relative density, consistency and its significance, surface tension, capillary action, pressure level. region gauge and vacuum pressure – measuring of pressure. Manometers- measuring instrument, U-tube, inverted and differential manometers. Pascal’s law, fluid mechanics law. Buoyancy and floatation: Meta center, stability of floating body. Submerged bodies. Calculation of metacentre height. Stability analysis and applications.
UNIT II Objective: during this unit student are going to be exposed to the fundamental laws of fluids, flow patterns, viscous flow through ducts and their corresponding issues. Fluid kinematics: Introduction, flow types. Equation of continuity for one dimensional flow, circulation and vorticity, Stream line, path line and streak lines and stream tube. Stream operate and speed potential operate, variations and relation between them. Condition for irrotational flow, flow net, supply and sink, jacket and vortex flow. Fluid dynamics: surface and body forces –Euler’s and Bernoulli’s equations for flow on a stream line, momentum equation and its applications, force on pipe bend. Closed passage flow: Reynold’s experiment- Darcy Weisbach equation- Minor losses in pipes- pipes in series and pipes in parallel- total energy line-hydraulic gradient line.

### UNIT III

#### Objective:

At the tip of this unit student are going to be alert to the ideas associated with physical phenomenon theory, flow separation, basic ideas of speed profiles, dimensionless numbers and dimensional analysis. physical phenomenon Theory: Introduction, momentum integral equation, displacement, momentum and energy thickness, separation of physical phenomenon, management of flow separation, Stream lined body, Bluff body and its applications, basic ideas of speed profiles. Dimensional Analysis: Similitude and modelling – Dimensionless numbers

### UNIT IV

#### Objective:

during this unit student can recognize the hydraulics forces performing on vanes and their performance analysis. Basics of turbo machinery: hydraulics force of jets on stationary and moving flat, inclined, and flexuous vanes, jet hanging centrally and at tip, speed diagrams, work done and potency, flow over radial vanes.
II Year – I Semester
L T P C
4 0 0 3
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINES

### UNIT V

#### Objective:

At the tip of this unit student are going to be alert to the importance, operate and performance of hydro machinery. Centrifugal pumps: classification, working, work done – manometric head- losses and efficiencies- specific speed- pumps nonparallel and parallel-performance characteristic curves, cavitation & NPSH. reciprocatory pumps: operating, Discharge, slip, indicator diagrams.

### UNIT VI

#### Objective:

When learning this unit student are going to be in a very position to judge the performance characteristics of hydraulic turbines. conjointly a touch information on hydraulic systems and fluidics is imparted to the coed. Hydraulic Turbines: classification of turbines, impulse and reaction turbines, Pelton wheel, Francis rotary engine and Kaplan turbine-working proportions, work done, efficiencies, hydraulic style –draft tube- theory- functions and potency. Performance of hydraulic turbines: Geometric similarity, Unit and specific quantities, characteristic curves, governing of turbines, choice of style of rotary engine, cavitation, surge tank, eruption. Hydraulic systems- hydraulic pump, hydraulic carry, hydraulic coupling. Fluidics – amplifiers, sensors and oscillators. Advantages, limitations and applications.

### Text Books:

1. Hydraulics, hydraulics and Hydraulic machinery MODI and SETH.
2. hydraulics and Hydraulic Machines by Rajpoot.
3. hydraulics and Hydraulic Machines/ RK Bansal/Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.
Reference Books:
4. hydraulics and Fluid Power Engineering by D.S. Kumar, Kotaria & Sons.
5. hydraulics and Machinery by D. Rama Durgaiah, New Age International.
6. Hydraulic Machines by Banga & Sharma, Khanna Publishers.
7. Instrumentation for Engineering Measurements by James W. Dally, William E. Riley ,John Wiley & Sons Iraqi National Congress. 2004 (Chapter twelve – Fluid Flow Measurements)
8. hydraulics and Hydraulic Machines by Domkundwar & Domkundwar, Dhanpatrai & Co.